Kulshrestha, Graham Greene: The Novelists, p. Slavery was banned in England in and a year later, The Spanish Inquisition ends in There was an influx of great writers during his time. Worldly influences such as wars, lack of proper health for illness such as tuberculosis and the popularity of stories with horror and monsters most certainly influence how Poe wrote.
Poe's life started tragically, when his father deserted his family and his mother died of tuberculosis Bloom Tennyson, said to be the best poet of the Victorian era and his poetry will be discussed in this essay. Tennyson had a lifelong fear of mental illness, because several men in his family had a mild form of epilepsy, which then was thought of as a shameful disease.
His father and brother Arthur made their epilepsy worse by excessive drinking. His brother Edward had to be put in a mental institution after , and he spent a few weeks himself under doctor's care in He was diagnosed with a mortal illness. John Keats was born in the year and was the oldest son of an ostler, a laborer who looked after horses. Keats was an apprentice to a surgeon and pursued a career in the medical field, but Keats found it horrifying and started writing poetry.
New York: Barns and Noble Books, , Bibliography Eyck, Frank. The Revolutions of New York: Barns and Noble Books, Robertson, Priscilla. Depression happens when all attempts to prevent the impact of the loss have failed that the reality of it begins to set in as a profound sadness and lack of direction. Here the speaker is saying that the five years he knew his friend were the best years of his life.
In a way, the speaker is already giving up the possibility that there can be anything better than the five years he had with his friend. Open Document. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Published in the spring of May, , Keats ' poem is written soon after a previous December that marked both the death of his brother Thomas Keats and an engagement to Fanny Browne. Struggling between "imaginative escape" and "human limitation" Sperry, , Ode to a Nightingale pits tensions echoed in Keats' personal life.
These are tensions that reflect a universal dichotomy of human experience in mortality and the sublime. Instead of embracing the coming truth, the narrator clings to poetry to hide from the loss of pleasure. Poetry does not bring about the pleasure that the narrator original asks for, but it does liberate him from his desire for only pleasure. Responding to this emphasis on pleasure, Albert Guerard, Jr. The form of the poem is that of progression by association, so that the movement of feeling is at the mercy of words evoked by chance, such words as fade and forlorn , the very words that, like a bell, toll the dreamer back to his sole self.
Death was a constant theme that permeated aspects of Keats poetry because he was exposed to death of his family members throughout his life. The nightingale experiences a sort of death and even the god Apollo experiences death, but his death reveals his own divine state. As Perkins explains, "But, of course, the nightingale is not thought to be literally dying. The point is that the deity or the nightingale can sing without dying. But, as the ode makes clear, man cannot—or at least not in a visionary way.
With this theme of a loss of pleasure and inevitable death, the poem, according to Claude Finney, describes "the inadequacy of the romantic escape from the world of reality to the world of ideal beauty". The contrast between the immortal nightingale and mortal man, sitting in his garden, is made all the more acute by an effort of the imagination. Contemporary critics of Keats enjoyed the poem, and it was heavily quoted in their reviews. Indeed, we are inclined to prefer it beyond every other poem in the book; but let the reader judge.
The third and seventh stanzas have a charm for us which we should find it difficult to explain. We have read this ode over and over again, and every time with increased delight. There is that mixture in it of real melancholy and imaginative relief, which poetry alone presents us in her 'charmed cup,' and which some over-rational critics have undertaken to find wrong because it is not true.
It does not follow that what is not true to them, is not true to others. If the relief is real, the mixture is good and sufficing. John Scott , in an anonymous review for the September edition of The London Magazine , argued for the greatness of Keats's poetry as exemplified by poems including "Ode to a Nightingale":. The injustice which has been done to our author's works, in estimating their poetical merit, rendered us doubly anxious, on opening his last volume, to find it likely to seize fast hold of general sympathy, and thus turn an overwhelming power against the paltry traducers of talent, more eminently promising in many respects, than any the present age has been called upon to encourage.
We have not found it to be quite all that we wished in this respect—and it would have been very extraordinary if we had, for our wishes went far beyond reasonable expectations. But we have found it of a nature to present to common understandings the poetical power with which the author's mind is gifted, in a more tangible and intelligible shape than that in which it has appeared in any of his former compositions.
It is, therefore, calculated to throw shame on the lying, vulgar spirit, in which this young worshipper in the temple of the Muses has been cried-down; whatever questions may still leave to be settled as to the kind and degree of his poetical merits. Take for instance, as proof of the justice of our praise, the following passage from an Ode to the Nightingaleit is distinct, noble, pathetic, and true: the thoughts have all chords of direct communication with naturally-constituted hearts: the echoes of the strain linger bout the depths of human bosoms.
In a review for the 21 January London Journal , Hunt claimed that while Keats wrote the poem, "The poet had then his mortal illness upon him, and knew it. Never was the voice of death sweeter. At the end of the 19th century, Robert Bridges's analysis of the poem became a dominant view and would influence later interpretations of the poem.
Bridges, in , declared that the poem was the best of Keats's odes but he thought that the poem contained too much artificial language. In particular, he emphasised the use of the word "forlorn" and the last stanza as being examples of Keats's artificial language. At the beginning of the 20th century, Rudyard Kipling referred to lines 69 and 70, alongside three lines from Samuel Taylor Coleridge 's Kubla Khan , when he claimed of poetry: "In all the millions permitted there are no more than five—five little lines—of which one can say, 'These are the magic.
These are the vision. The rest is only Poetry. Keats's Ode to a Nightingale and Shelley's Ode to a Skylark are two of the glories of English literature; but both were written by men who had no claim to special or exact knowledge of ornithology as such.
Imagination cannot be more rich and satisfying, felicity of phrase and cadence cannot be more absolute, than in the several contrasted stanzas calling for the draft of southern vintage […] To praise the art of a passage like that in the fourth stanza […] to praise or comment on a stroke of art like this is to throw doubt on the reader's power to perceive it for himself.
Bridges' view of "Ode to a Nightingale" was taken up by H. Garrod in his analysis of Keats's poems. As Albert Gerard would argue later in , Garrod believed that the problem within Keats's poem was his emphasis on the rhythm and the language instead of the main ideas of the poem.
Agnes , and seen this craftsman slowly elaborating and refining, will ever believe that this perfect stanza was achieved with the easy fluency with which, in the draft we have, it was obviously written down. Leavis wrote, "One remembers the poem both as recording, and as being for the reader, an indulgence. It contains some complications which we must not gloss over if we are to appreciate the depth and significance of the issues engaged.
Richard Fogle responded to the critical attack on Keats's emphasis on rhyme and language put forth by Garrod, Gerard, and others in His argument was similar to Brooks: that the poem was thematically coherent and that there is a poet within the poem that is different from Keats the writer of the poem. As such, Keats consciously chose the shift in the themes of the poem and the contrasts within the poem represent the pain felt when comparing the real world to an ideal world found within the imagination.
Leavis too austere, but he points out a quality which Keats plainly sought for. His profusion and prodigality is, however, modified by a principle of sobriety. Forces contend wildly within the poem, not only without resolution, but without possibility of resolution; and the reader comes away from his experience with the sense that he has been in 'a wild Abyss'". Although the poem was defended by a few critics, E. Pettet returned to the argument that the poem lacked a structure and emphasized the word "forlorn" as evidence of his view.
Two reasons for this quality are immediately apparent: there is its matchless evocation of that late spring and early summer season […] and there is its exceptional degree of 'distillation', of concentrated recollection".
From the late s onward, many of the Yale School of critics describe the poem as a reworking of John Milton's poetic diction, but, they argued, that poem revealed that Keats lacked the ability of Milton as a poet. The critics, Harold Bloom , Leslie Brisman , Paul Fry , John Hollander and Cynthia Chase , all focused on the poem with Milton as a progenitor to "Ode to a Nightingale" while ignoring other possibilities, including Shakespeare who was emphasised as being the source of many of Keats's phrases.
Responding to the claims about Milton and Keats's shortcomings, critics like R. White and Willard Spiegelman used the Shakespearean echoes to argue for a multiplicity of sources for the poem to claim that Keats was not trying to respond just to Milton or escape from his shadow. Instead, "Ode to a Nightingale" was an original poem,  as White claimed, "The poem is richly saturated in Shakespeare, yet the assimilations are so profound that the Ode is finally original, and wholly Keatsian".
Focusing on the quality of the poem, Stuart Sperry, argued in , "'Ode to a Nightingale' is the supreme expression in all Keats's poetry of the impulse to imaginative escape that flies in the face of the knowledge of human limitation, the impulse fully expressed in 'Away!
I believe that the 'events' of the ode, as it unfolds in time, have more logic, however, than is usually granted them, and that they are best seen in relation to Keats's pursuit of the idea of music as a nonrepresentational art. In a review of contemporary criticism of "Ode to a Nightingale" in , James O'Rouke claimed that "To judge from the volume, the variety, and the polemical force of the modern critical responses engendered, there have been few moments in English poetic history as baffling as Keats's repetition of the word 'forlorn'".
Scott Fitzgerald took the title of his novel Tender is the Night from the 35th line of the ode. The poem is quoted in Chapter 1 of P. Wodehouse 's novel Full Moon : "'Coming here? A numbness seemed to be paining his sense, as though of hemlock he had drunk. Part of the poem is quoted in an episode of Penny Dreadful , when Lucifer appears to Vanessa Ives to tempt her, and quotes the poem in his conversation. This song-cycle uses the entirety of the work with the cycles' eight songs based on the eight stanzas of the poem.
Nearly all the songs in the cycle have preludes, interludes and postludes, possibly hinting at a Schumann -like effect, where the piano is the main voice and the sung part merely adds decoration. There is also a very fine setting by Hamilton Harty, set for soprano and orchestra. It was first performed at the Cardiff Festival in , and later magnificently recorded by Heather Harper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Poem by John Keats. Neatby 's illustration for Ode to a Nightingale.
Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 11 April Full Moon. Arrow Books. ISBN Ode to a Nightingale. John Keats. John Keats bibliography List of poems by John Keats. Categories : poems Poems about nightingales Poetry by John Keats.
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