racial intolerance essay

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The great homework debate: Too much, too little or busy work? Photos: Parents grade their kids' homework: Too much or not enough? Hide Caption. Story highlights There homework too much or too little a sharp debate among parents about homework The National PTA composition dissertations 10 minutes of homework per night per grade level The research on the benefits of homework is mixed Giving students homework time at the end of school day helps, say students. Ask parents how they feel about homework, as we did on CNN's Facebook pageand the response is immediate and intense. So many parents from all over the country sounded off passionately, saying we expect too much, too little or the wrong things from young students.

Racial intolerance essay best cv writing website usa

Racial intolerance essay

A biological trait — the craving for sugary or fatty foods — which was adaptive in premodern times, has become detrimental and maladaptive. Surely our modern cultures can protect us from these innate drives when they are unhealthy for ourselves and society? After all, we effectively suppress violent behaviour in society through the way we bring up children, policing and the prison system. Instead of acknowledging and protecting us from the innate drive to binge on unhealthy food, however, our modern cultures in many countries at least actually exacerbate that particular problem.

In the case of obesity, this might mean less marketing of junk food and altering the composition of manufactured food. We can also change our own behaviour, for example laying down new routines and healthier eating habits. Both nature and nurture play a role in how we relate to others - cultures that encourage acceptance help to undermine xenophobia Credit: Getty Images. But what about bigotry and xenophobia? That may depend on how big the problems we face in future are. For example, growing ecological crises — climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss — may actually lead to more bigoted and xenophobic attitudes.

Such societies are more likely to elect authoritarian leaders and to show prejudice towards outsiders. This has been observed under past ecological threats such as resource scarcity and disease outbreaks. Under most climate change scenarios we expect these threats, in particular extreme weather events and food insecurity, to only get worse. The same goes for the coronavirus pandemic. While many hope such outbreaks can lead to a better world , they could do exactly the opposite.

This enhanced loyalty to our local tribe is a defence mechanism that helped past human groups pull together and overcome hardship. But it is not beneficial in a globalised world , where ecological issues and our economies transcend national boundaries. In response to global issues, becoming bigoted, xenophobic and reducing cooperation with other countries will only make the impacts on our own nations worse.

Back in , a United Nations initiative called the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment sought to take stock of global environmental trends and, crucially, to explore how these trends might unfold in the future. In response to an ecological catastrophe of their making, rich countries simply argue about how best to prevent the potential influx of migrants.

The values of the people around us can have a strong influence on our own views, for better or worse Credit: Getty Images. Thankfully, we can use rational thinking to develop strategies to overcome these attitudes. An important first step is appreciating our connectedness to other people. Our minds are closely linked through social networks, and the things we create are often the inevitable next step in a series of interdependent innovations. Innovation is part of a great, linked creative human endeavour with no respect for race or national boundaries.

In the face of overwhelming evidence from multiple scientific disciplines biology, psychology, neuroscience you can even question whether we exist as discrete individuals, or whether this sense of individuality is an illusion as I argue in my book The Self Delusion. We evolved to believe we are discrete individuals because it brought survival benefits such as memory formation and an ability to track complex social interactions. But taken too far, self-centred individualism can prevent us from solving collective problems.

Beyond theory, practice is also necessary to literally rewire our brains — reinforcing the neural networks through which compassionate behaviour arises. Outdoor community activities have been shown to increase our psychological connectedness to others, albeit right at this moment they are off-limits for those in lockdown. Similarly, meditation approaches alter neural networks in the brain and reduce our sense of isolated self-identity , instead promoting compassion towards others.

Even computer games and books can be designed to increase empathy. Finally, at the societal level, we need frank and open debate about environmental change and its current and future human impacts — crucially, how our attitudes and values can affect other lives and livelihoods. We need public dialogue around climate-driven human migration and how we respond to that as a society, allowing us to mitigate the knee-jerk reaction of devaluing others.

Instead, we can open ourselves up to a more expansive attitude of connectedness, empowering us to work together in cooperation with our fellow human kin. It is possible to steer our cultures and rewire our brains so that xenophobia and bigotry all but disappear. Indeed, working collaboratively across borders to overcome the global challenges of the 21st Century relies upon us doing just that. It seeks to answer our readers' nagging questions about life, love, death and the Universe.

We work with professional researchers who have dedicated their lives to uncovering new perspectives on the questions that shape our lives. If you have a question you would like to be answered, please email either send us a message on Facebook or Twitter or email bigquestions theconversation.

Join one million Future fans by liking us on Facebook , or follow us on Twitter or Instagram. If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly bbc. Share using Email. By Tom Oliver 6th April Respectful and tolerant societies are typically the most harmonious. To get through the challenges of the 21st Century, we are going to need to learn to overcome racism and bigotry. Peter, 71, Darlington Humans are the most cooperative species on the planet — all part of a huge interconnected ecosystem.

Yet, not a single person on the face of this Earth knows how to make me. You might also like: Could we live in a world without rules? It may come from Western aesthetics of blond and white. Her negative perceptions of African Americans were commonplace in my Ph.

An often-overlooked area of inquiry is what racial attitudes and stereotypes international students bring to America, which affect with whom they interact, how they navigate their college experience in the U. More than half of students interviewed in my dissertation study held negative stereotypes of African-American and Latino people. A racial hierarchy emerged as students explained that white people were on the top of this status pyramid because of the perceived wealth, beauty, and education portrayed in American and Asian film and television.

Southeast Asians were placed at a low level due to the developing economic conditions of many Southeast Asian nations as well as an Asian racial hierarchy based on phenotype, with darker skin being less desirable. East Asian international students had positive views toward Asian-American students; however, upon further interaction between these groups on campus, Asian international students felt as though they were not accepted by Asian Americans and had trouble finding topics to discuss with Asian Americans because they were, as one interviewee put it, "white inside their heart," or very Americanized.

While Asian international students wanted to interact with white Americans, they also felt like white Americans did not want to interact with internationals and when they did, internationals experienced social discomfort due to language barriers and lack of common topics to discuss. Without a required diversity course at UCLA, many international students complete their educational experience in America maintaining the same stereotypes with which they came into college. These findings are troubling and may have greater implications as international students become a larger population of our colleges, universities, and citizenry.

According to the International Institute of Education, in the academic year, the number of enrolled international students studying in the U. Chinese students increased by 23 percent, to , students, Indian students reached ,, and Korean student numbers increased to 75, students. Universities and the U. With this growing population of international students, colleges and universities should be creating policies and programs to lessen balkanization and racial discrimination, and at the same time, integrating international students into life in the U.

America has gone to two wars in the last decade, some have argued, in order to spread American democracy and values of tolerance. Now we have , international students at our doorstep and what are we doing to educate them about our government institutions and racial diversity? Sadly, the answer is "not enough. The University of Southern California, the university hosting the largest number of international students in the nation 8, students , does have a diversity requirement, but more can be done to help create tolerant and aware global citizens.

Many university international centers have international student orientation single-day events, but there may need to be more workshops, programs, and structured classroom experiences in academic departments and residential life spaces to help reduce international-domestic student balkanization and build bridges of cultural understanding between the two groups. My dissertation illustrated that international student stereotypes could easily be broken through positive contact between seemingly disparate groups, whether these interactions took place in living spaces, work places, the classroom, or in student clubs.

International graduate students in the sciences tended to have co-national labmates and advisers, which resulted in less interaction with domestic students and the creation of a niche community of co-nationals. UCLA also created an American Culture and Communication course where students learn American culture through music and film, while debunking racial stereotypes within the media.

Santa Monica Community College has a peer mentor system that also aids international students. As the recent article here illustrates, these are good first steps, but there must be a culture of sensitivity and cultural awareness on the part of professors, students affairs officers, and students to make international students feel welcome. Building a culture of tolerance takes time, but as the number of international students grows, colleges and universities will have to adapt quickly to serve the needs of these students or else face a decline in revenue from this unique population.

These students come to America from upper-middle class families in their country and expect quality services and amenities to be provided at an American university. They are often status-driven, seeking an educational advantage over their peers back home. Therefore, if they do not feel they are welcomed at a university, if they face racial discrimination, or if they are not being provided with the amenities they expect, they will apply to a different university or tell their friends in their home country about their lackluster experience in America.

This could affect the reputation of the university abroad, and could hurt public universities that may not be able to provide the student services and individual attention that private universities can.

Colleges should confront the reality that many who enroll from abroad have ill-informed and racist attitudes about some minority groups, writes Zack Ritter.

Racial intolerance essay FATIMA BAROUDI Morocco said it was regrettable that, pay for my best best essay on shakespeare new technologies had reduced distances and turned the world popular home work proofreading websites au a global village, ideas based on discrimination, exclusion and hatred had continued to proliferate and to find many sympathizers. Racism, antisemitism, xenophobia, and intolerance and their impact on young people in Europe" symposium report19 Learn more at www. There are no others, just other people. He also drew attention to the growth of defamation of religions, including anti-Semitism, Christianophobia, and, more particularly, Islamophobia. OTTO A. Like the Special Rapporteur, Kuwait believed that racism was the major danger to democratic ideas. If your children are in school, find out from their teacher about how racism is covered in class and school rules and regulations to prevent and deal with it.
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Racial intolerance essay For information media. Bio Zack Ritter is a graduating Ph. The discussion focuses on concepts and measures of race and ethnicity in federal data sources, how different measures may affect distributions and consequent analyses for racial and ethnic groups, and research that is needed to improve federal measures. Any round table discussions also should consider issues of sovereignty, the human rights obligations and responsibilities of Non-State Actors and the impact of globalization. Thousands of young people took part in the various activities of the campaign throughout Europe. Racial intolerance essay their update on antisemitism in the EU, the Agency noted that "most Member States do not have official or even unofficial data and statistics on antisemitic incidents".
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Top dissertation ghostwriter website usa They are often status-driven, seeking an educational advantage over their peers back home. It also supported the recommendation of the Special Rapporteur that FIFA should implement and expand programmes aimed at combating racism in soccer and pay for my best best essay on shakespeare that other sporting bodies would do the same. All representation is misrepresentation in one form or the other. In the case of slavery, slave traders had asked to be compensated, and they had been, financially and materially. It was therefore necessary, he said, to actively confront the legitimization of racism and xenophobia and the relationship of those scourges to the defamation of religions and their figures, especially in well-rooted democracies. Much of the discussion in this report on such topics as statistical inference, experimental design, and data quality is relatively technical pay for my best best essay on shakespeare nature. It has been the basis of the Nazi ideologies and of the programmes to exterminate Jews and other "inferior a free effective academic cover letter sample.

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What Causes Social Intolerance? This can be seen as a result of an increasingly pluralistic society, which encompasses vast elements of race, religion, ethnicity, sexuality and general diversity. Due to this greater emphasis has been cast upon the concept toleration. To a degree this can be. Heschel, Jewish philosopher. It is based on the lives of the Bianchis, an Italian family living in the suburb of Collingwood, during the post World War II immigration boom.

As a literary device, symbolism is the representation. Throughout human existence it has sparked tension between groups of people and ultimately influenced wars and even caused slavery. Racism in America dates back to. Jeremiah Cook Mrs. Scout matures throughout the novel through her father, Atticus, and she becomes more aware of the prejudice in Maycomb County. When Atticus loses his case, Scout and her brother, Jem, learn. The white girl's identity by the names readers know is not more important than the simple fact that one of those women dies.

So, while the Convent women are not actively. Here, Margaret Laurence uses setting and characterization to show how severe the prejudice of white people can be towards half breeds, after the period of new colonization. Piquette Tonnere, protagonist, who intends to fight those prejudices eventually, dies, leaving readers surprised to observe the cruelty of the society.

Although white people are still the majority and have most of the wealth in America, there is one thing they do not own, the n-word. This one word has caused controversy and conflicts between races in society. What is the problem with the n-word in the first place? Although not the only domains of concern, these are key areas of social interaction for which discrimination can seriously limit life opportunities; these are also among the areas for which the federal government regularly collects administrative and survey data long used by researchers to study discrimination and discriminatory effects.

We do not provide an exhaustive set of examples for each of these areas. Rather, a selected bibliography of important literature reviews, major reports, and other work on data collection and analytical methods used in each of these domains is provided at the end of this report.

Much of the discussion in this report on such topics as statistical inference, experimental design, and data quality is relatively technical in nature. Although sometimes dry, the import of this discussion should not be misunderstood by readers who are deeply concerned about the possible extent and continued effects of racial discrimination in American life. It was our shared concern about racial discrimination that drew each member of the panel into the in-depth discussions of measurement reflected in this report.

Because we view racial discrimination as a crucial social issue, we believe it is essential to use the most credible and accurate measurement approaches. In carrying out this study, the panel met and deliberated over a period of almost 2 years. We held meetings, invited speakers, and commissioned several papers see Box ; we requested input from prominent scholars on key issues; reviewed a large body of literature on salient aspects of the law and criminal justice, labor markets, housing markets, education, and.

Smith reviews methods for measuring racial discrimination, focusing primarily on survey-based approaches. Ross and Yinger examine the use and quality of data on race collected for administrative purposes, as well as issues of comparability and interpretation that arise for both enforcement officials and scholars attempting to study discrimination.

These papers are available directly from the authors. The panel also commissioned several papers for a workshop on measuring racial disparities and discrimination in elementary and secondary education see Appendix A. The purpose of the workshop was to expand and improve the statistical capability of the U. Department of Education and other federal agencies to measure and track discrimination. This report is divided into three parts.

The chapters in Part I provide a conceptual framework for thinking about racial discrimination. Chapter 2 explores the meaning of race as a social construct and provides historical background on the complex issues surrounding race in the United States and how it is measured in the decennial census and other federal data collections. Chapter 3 defines discrimination from a social science perspective and explains why we focus on racial discrimination.

Our definition of racial discrimination is informed by legal concepts of discrimination, but it also encompasses behaviors and processes that may not be unlawful or easily measured. Chapter 4 provides a framework for understanding how racial. As the discussion indicates, there are different ways in which discrimination can occur and various mechanisms that can result in discriminatory behavior.

Identifying various sources of discrimination is a crucial first step in developing theories or models of discrimination and using them to guide data collection and research for measuring the presence and extent of different types of discrimination. The chapters in Part II examine methodological approaches to measuring discrimination and the advantages, limitations, and best techniques associated with each.

Chapter 5 provides a general framework for inferring causation and a brief introduction to some of the topics covered in detail in the chapters that follow. Chapter 6 focuses on experimental methods, including field and laboratory experiments.

Chapter 7 describes the use of statistical analysis of observational data to measure discrimination, reviewing the necessary assumptions and potential credibility of various approaches. Chapter 8 focuses on approaches employing attitudinal and behavioral indicators of discrimination, including methods based on survey data and administrative records. Each of these chapters describes specific approaches and the situations in which they can be implemented and may be appropriate.

Where possible, we also attempt to identify more and less credible approaches, providing guidance for future scholars seeking to use the most effective methods. Chapter 9 at the end of Part II addresses issues of racial profiling, as an illustration of an area in which measuring discrimination is difficult. Chapter 10 describes the data collected by federal statistical and administrative agencies that may support analysis of racial discrimination and its effects. The discussion focuses on concepts and measures of race and ethnicity in federal data sources, how different measures may affect distributions and consequent analyses for racial and ethnic groups, and research that is needed to improve federal measures.

Chapter 11 considers the nature of cumulative effects of discrimination within and across multiple domains, seeking to identify techniques that can be used to provide a fuller measure of the impact of discrimination when it occurs over time and in more than one social arena. Little empirical work has been done on cumulative discrimination, so research and data collection in this area are important to pursue.

Finally, Chapter 12 suggests next steps for program and research agencies to build a research agenda that is directed to priority needs for measuring racial discrimination. The report ends with two appendixes: Appendix A presents the agenda for the Workshop on Measuring Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Elementary and Secondary Education held by the panel in July ; Appendix B provides biographical sketches of the panel members and staff.

Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discrimination—pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas.

While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.

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Measuring Racial Discrimination. Page 16 Share Cite. In particular, this panel was asked to conduct the following tasks: Give the policy and scholarly communities new tools for assessing the extent to which discrimination continues to undermine the achievement of equal opportunity by suggesting additional means for measuring discrimination that can be applied not only to the racial question but in other important social arenas as well.

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Many university international centers have international student orientation single-day events, but there may need to be more workshops, programs, and structured classroom experiences in academic departments and residential life spaces to help reduce international-domestic student balkanization and build bridges of cultural understanding between the two groups.

My dissertation illustrated that international student stereotypes could easily be broken through positive contact between seemingly disparate groups, whether these interactions took place in living spaces, work places, the classroom, or in student clubs. International graduate students in the sciences tended to have co-national labmates and advisers, which resulted in less interaction with domestic students and the creation of a niche community of co-nationals.

UCLA also created an American Culture and Communication course where students learn American culture through music and film, while debunking racial stereotypes within the media. Santa Monica Community College has a peer mentor system that also aids international students. As the recent article here illustrates, these are good first steps, but there must be a culture of sensitivity and cultural awareness on the part of professors, students affairs officers, and students to make international students feel welcome.

Building a culture of tolerance takes time, but as the number of international students grows, colleges and universities will have to adapt quickly to serve the needs of these students or else face a decline in revenue from this unique population.

These students come to America from upper-middle class families in their country and expect quality services and amenities to be provided at an American university. They are often status-driven, seeking an educational advantage over their peers back home. Therefore, if they do not feel they are welcomed at a university, if they face racial discrimination, or if they are not being provided with the amenities they expect, they will apply to a different university or tell their friends in their home country about their lackluster experience in America.

This could affect the reputation of the university abroad, and could hurt public universities that may not be able to provide the student services and individual attention that private universities can. These students of the new global elite SONGEs are paying top dollar to earn an education and experience life in America.

They should not be relegated to racial slurs, covert taunts over the twittersphere, or subjected to what Jenny J. If we are to truly create global and tolerant citizens that will be the future leaders and teachers of tomorrow, we must create more college diversity courses, not shy away from teaching American history, culture, and government to international students, and create safe spaces on campus to discuss international-domestic student relations.

It is in the interest of American colleges and universities not only to recruit international students but to give them the rich education for which they are paying and from which the global community will benefit.

Zack Ritter is a graduating Ph. He has worked in academic counseling, American culture curriculum development for international students, inter-group dialogue programs, academic success programs, and residential life. Expand comments Hide comments.

We have retired comments and introduced Letters to the Editor. Share your thoughts ». Advertise About Contact Subscribe. Coronavirus Live Updates - July 16, Foreign Students and Tolerance - II. By Zack Ritter. October 26, Bio Zack Ritter is a graduating Ph. Read more by Zack Ritter. Inside Higher Ed Careers Hiring? Post A Job Today! Several factors may contribute to racial differences in outcomes, including differences in socioeconomic status, differential access to opportunities, and others.

One factor that should be considered is the role of racial discrimination. Overt discrimination against African Americans and other minority groups characterized much of U. Although researchers in specific disciplines have investigated discrimination in particular domains, there has been little effort to coordinate and. To address this problem, the Committee on National Statistics convened a panel of scholars in to consider the definition of racial discrimination, assess current methodologies for measuring it, identify new approaches, and make recommendations about the best broad methodological approaches.

In particular, this panel was asked to conduct the following tasks:. Give the policy and scholarly communities new tools for assessing the extent to which discrimination continues to undermine the achievement of equal opportunity by suggesting additional means for measuring discrimination that can be applied not only to the racial question but in other important social arenas as well.

Conduct a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for measuring discrimination in a wide range of circumstances where it may occur. Consider how analyses of data from other sources could contribute to findings from research experimentation, such as the U. Department of Housing and Urban Development paired tests. Recommend further research as well as the development of data to complement research studies.

Although there is substantial direct empirical evidence for the prevalence of large disparities among racial and ethnic groups in various domains, it is often difficult to obtain direct evidence of whether and to what extent discrimination may be a contributing factor. Differential outcomes by race and ethnicity may or may not indicate discrimination. Examples of studies using methods that persuasively measure the presence or absence of discrimination are rare, and appropriate data for measurement are often unobtainable.

As a result, there is little scholarly consensus about the extent and frequency of discrimination and how it relates to continuing disadvantages along racial and ethnic lines Fix and Turner, One reason it is difficult to assess discrimination is that changes have occurred in the nature of prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behaviors.

With the passage of the Civil Rights Act of and other laws that prohibit discrimination because of race in a variety of domains, overt discrimination is less often apparent. However, discrimination may persist in more subtle forms. Indeed, social psychological research suggests that relatively automatic and unexamined cognitive processes, of which the holder and sometimes the target may not be fully aware, can lead to discrimination Devine, ; Fiske, These subtleties make defining and measuring discrimination more difficult.

The report is designed to help social science researchers, policy analysts, federal agencies, and concerned observers better understand how to assess racial discrimination in different domains, drawing on different social science methods and data sources as appropriate. To approach this important but difficult task, the panel focused on defining relevant concepts, examining various methodological approaches and data sources, and considering directions for future research.

In some situations, one approach may be more easily implemented and more credible; in other situations, another approach may be more appropriate. Often, multiple approaches will be needed to provide credible evidence about the prevalence of discrimination in a domain. Thus, the panel attempts to identify the broad range of approaches for measuring discrimination and to provide a critical review of their relative credibility when applied in different situations.

The panel develops a cross-disciplinary research and data collection agenda for action by public and private funding agencies and the research community. The report makes no attempt to actually measure current or past levels of discrimination in any domain. Our purpose is not to report numbers or impacts but to provide guidance and encouragement to researchers and policy analysts as they work across domains to identify where discrimination may be present and what its effects may be.

In the first part of this report, the panel defines the concepts of race and racial discrimination from a social science perspective, which we believe is the appropriate perspective for research and policy analysis on discrimination. When referring to race in the report, the panel uses the categories established by the federal classification standards U.

According to these standards, Hispanics or Latinos are referred to as an ethnic group. Yet, although the panel was asked to consider racial discrimination, Hispanics a rapidly growing ethnic population also face discrimination. In addition, concepts of race and ethnicity are not clearly defined for many Hispanics, so for these two reasons our discussion often refers to Hispanics as well as to specific racial groups.

Throughout the report, the term disadvantaged racial group is used to refer to groups in the United States e. The panel is concerned with broad types of discriminatory behaviors and processes that have negative consequences for disadvantaged racial groups in various social and economic arenas. We draw on sociological, social psychological, and other literature to develop our definition of racial discrimination.

The panel acknowledges that the effect of such cumulative discrimination may not be easily identified or measured. In interpreting that part of its charge to review measurement methods, the panel chose to address broad approaches that could be applied across domains, rather than making recommendations about specific approaches for particular domains. Therefore, although examples are used throughout the report to illustrate efforts to measure discrimination in particular circumstances, our main focus is on methods e.

The examples of disparities and discrimination measurement that we provide come from research in five domains: labor markets and employment, education, housing and mortgage lending, health care, and criminal justice.

Although not the only domains of concern, these are key areas of social interaction for which discrimination can seriously limit life opportunities; these are also among the areas for which the federal government regularly collects administrative and survey data long used by researchers to study discrimination and discriminatory effects.

We do not provide an exhaustive set of examples for each of these areas. Rather, a selected bibliography of important literature reviews, major reports, and other work on data collection and analytical methods used in each of these domains is provided at the end of this report. Much of the discussion in this report on such topics as statistical inference, experimental design, and data quality is relatively technical in nature. Although sometimes dry, the import of this discussion should not be misunderstood by readers who are deeply concerned about the possible extent and continued effects of racial discrimination in American life.

It was our shared concern about racial discrimination that drew each member of the panel into the in-depth discussions of measurement reflected in this report. Because we view racial discrimination as a crucial social issue, we believe it is essential to use the most credible and accurate measurement approaches.

In carrying out this study, the panel met and deliberated over a period of almost 2 years. We held meetings, invited speakers, and commissioned several papers see Box ; we requested input from prominent scholars on key issues; reviewed a large body of literature on salient aspects of the law and criminal justice, labor markets, housing markets, education, and.

Smith reviews methods for measuring racial discrimination, focusing primarily on survey-based approaches. Ross and Yinger examine the use and quality of data on race collected for administrative purposes, as well as issues of comparability and interpretation that arise for both enforcement officials and scholars attempting to study discrimination.

These papers are available directly from the authors. The panel also commissioned several papers for a workshop on measuring racial disparities and discrimination in elementary and secondary education see Appendix A. The purpose of the workshop was to expand and improve the statistical capability of the U. Department of Education and other federal agencies to measure and track discrimination. This report is divided into three parts. The chapters in Part I provide a conceptual framework for thinking about racial discrimination.

Chapter 2 explores the meaning of race as a social construct and provides historical background on the complex issues surrounding race in the United States and how it is measured in the decennial census and other federal data collections.

Chapter 3 defines discrimination from a social science perspective and explains why we focus on racial discrimination. Our definition of racial discrimination is informed by legal concepts of discrimination, but it also encompasses behaviors and processes that may not be unlawful or easily measured.