poverty in bangladesh essay

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Poverty in bangladesh essay

The national poverty rate fell in both rural and urban areas, but the speed of reduction was much slower in urban Bangladesh, largely because of slower rates of poverty reduction in Dhaka and increasing poverty in Chittagong. There was no progress in reducing extreme poverty in urban areas: the proportion of the urban population living in extreme poverty was 7.

Given that Bangladesh continued to urbanize during this time, there are now more people living in extreme poverty in urban Bangladesh 3. Many people live in remote areas that lack services such as education, health clinics, and adequate roads, particularly road links to markets. An estimated 21 percent of the population in urban areas lives below the poverty line. These Bangladeshis have limited access to health care and to clean drinking water.

One of the biggest cause of rural poverty is due to the fast-growing population rate. It places huge pressure on the environment, causing problems such as erosion and flooding, which in turn leads to low agricultural productivity. The causes of urban poverty are due to the limited employment opportunities, degraded environment, bad housing and sanitation. The urban poor hold jobs that are labour demanding, thus affecting their health conditions. Therefore, the urban poor are in a difficult situation to escape poverty.

While some flooding is beneficial to agriculture, high levels of flooding have been found to be a retardant on agricultural growth. Of these, households engaged in farming and fishing suffer a greater loss relative to income. A positive relationship exists between flood risk and poverty as measured by household income, with people living under the poverty threshold facing a higher risk of flooding, as measured by their proximity to rivers and flood depth.

Also, they tend to depend solely or largely on crop cultivation and fisheries for their livelihood and thus are harder hit by floods relative to their income. Important to the finances of farmers operating small farms is their self-sufficiency in rice and floods adversely affect this factor, destroying harvests and arable land. Farmers hit are often forced to undertake distressed land selling [22] and in doing so, risk being pushed into or deeper into poverty.

In areas hard hit by floods, especially disaster floods such as the flood, several researchers have found that many of the affected households have resorted to selling off assets such as land and livestock to mitigate losses. Also, in an area hard-hit by poverty and prone to floods, it was found that many of the poor were unwilling to pay for flood protection. The main reason cited had been lack of financial resources although it was found that many of these people are willing to substitute non-financial means of payment such as labour, harvest or part of their land [24].

The above is problematic as it creates a vicious cycle for the poor of Bangladesh. Because the poor may not be able to afford safer housing, they have to live near the river which raises their risk of flooding. This would result in greater damage suffered from the floods, driving the poor into selling assets and pushing them further into poverty. They would be further deprived of sufficient resources needed to prevent extensive damage from flooding, resulting in even more flood damage and poverty.

It then becomes even harder to escape this cycle. Even those farmers slightly above the poverty line are but just one bad flood away from the ranks of the poor. Poverty is most concentrated in the rural areas of Bangladesh, hence creating disparities between the rural and urban areas. However, urban poverty remains a problem too. In particular, poverty has been linked strongly to education and employment. Research papers published by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies BIDS have shown that poverty acts as both a cause and effect of a lack of education, which in turn adversely affects employment opportunities.

Having an unskilled workforce also greatly decreases the productivity of the workforce which decreases the appeal of Foreign Direct Investments FDIs and thus impedes sustainable economic growth. In essence, education is an important contribution to the social and economic development of a country.

Secondly, rising landlessness is also a consequence of poverty in Bangladesh. In the year , among the poorest of the poor — the poorest 20 percent of the population — four out of five owned less than half an acre of land. Not only did many own no acreage at all, but landlessness has been increasing in rural Bangladesh along with the number of small and marginal farms. Roughly three-fifths of all households in the two poorest quintiles fell into that category.

Lastly, for the chronic poor, issues such as food security and health hamper social mobility. According to a study done by the World Bank on Dhaka, the poor suffers from a lack of proper healthcare in their areas due to the expensive and poor quality health care services. This is a problem that is common in both the rural and urban poor. For the urban poor, the problem has worsened as they can only afford to stay in slums where there are problems of overcrowding and unhygienic living conditions.

These two factors results in the spread of diseases amongst the poor whom cannot afford better healthcare. Also, one cannot deny that a healthy and well-fed citizen is better suited for increased productivity as part of the workforce. Thus, poverty matters because it consequences the social welfare of citizens. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Retrieved 9 February The World Bank. World Bank. People affected by the Dust Bowl not only left their homes behind, but a piece of their life too.

Economically, these families and the country as a whole suffered. A depression occurs when supply and demand is thrown off and cannot recover Smiley Through the loss of farmers and available crops, the supply was lowered significantly. Not only were farmers gone but that land remained dead and unfarmable. In America, according to Ross Anderson, it 's caused by Poor Economy, Lack of affordable housing, drug use, lack of education and lastly medical expenses.

Also, poor countries that are corrupt, unstable , violent and in-depth are more likely to be in poverty such as East and North of Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific and Developing countries. Poverty in America is a little different from poverty in other countries. You 're more likely to notice poverty in other countries than the United States. People are on the streets with no.

One reason is the poverty that comprises of the lower class. Furthermore, this is common in the society of our country. Based on study. The first is blame the poor in which the poor is the main reason for poverty or responsible of causing poverty because of lack of jobs, occupation, degree, schooling, and determination to work. Today there are many people living in poverty, in local places you see many people sleeping on the streets and trying to make a living where they stand.

Poverty is a huge problem in today 's society and it 's not something only a few people have to deal with, one way or another the whole world has to deal with it. Poverty is defined as being in a state where you lack reliable basic needs such as food,water and technology. Where you do not make enough financially to support or help yourself and in some cases even your family. There are different stages in where someone would consider a person to be living in poverty, Some believe it to be when a family is living check to check, day by day and then there are some who would agree that people.

Even if the working poor were granted full-time employment, their position in society would still be in poverty because their wages are too low to fit themselves up in the society chain. As a result, the working poor also face an issue due to the jobs. Because farming is such a dominating field, the amount of other job opportunities available is scarce. These factors help contribute to the sagging economy that is most commonly associated with Mississippi.

Ultimately, the failure of the Delta to diversify has caused people to find themselves trapped in a never-ending turmoil between poor education and indigence. Poor people are unknown of their lack of voice, power, and rights, which leads them to exploitation. Poor people being unable to take part in social and cultural norms leads to breakdown of social relation among the people The effects of poverty can be mainly categorized as unemployment, illiteracy, food security, psychological well-being, increased crime rate, child health, homelessness etc.

Major effect of poverty is unemployment to those without land or dependable wage labor. Poor people can rarely find permanent, salaried job in the village or even in the city. Poor people engage in informal and daily wage labor with no security and low earnings.

Poverty is a main cause because people living in poverty cannot afford nutritious food for themselves and their families. This makes them weak, unstable, and less able to earn the money that would help them escape poverty and hunger to feed their families. Lack of agriculture plays a major role because many developing countries lack agriculture investment causing downfall in their economies, such as enough roads, warehouses and irrigation.

The results are high transport costs, lack of storage facilities and unreliable water supplies. This paper explains the meaning of poverty, and all poverty around the world and the United States.



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Bangladesh, home to a huge population of Poverty alleviation has, therefore, been high on its development agenda as is evidenced in all plan documents. Poverty is the single most important socio-economic policy challenge for Bangladesh.

Bangladesh has been struggling for a long time to reduce the incidence of poverty and to improve the living standards of its millions of impoverished citizens. In recent years, Bangladesh has made significant progress in reducing poverty. This decline of poverty in Bangladesh is by and large attributable to the relentless engagement in poverty reduction interventions.

The Government has laid special emphasis on poverty alleviation and has pledged to eradicate poverty through planned economic development. The present Government aims at reducing poverty rate at 22 and 15 by and respectively. Besides this, the Government is determined to build sustainable social safety net for the hard core poor. The country has already achieved the targets meant for a hunger and poverty-free society under the Millennium Development Goals MDGs.

The success in poverty reduction has been well-acclaimed by the international community. When the grand alliance Government took office in , around 5 crore 50 million people of the country were poor, of which 2 crore 88 lakh During the previous term of present government, though population growth rate was 1. Many of the extreme poor have crossed poverty line over the last 22 years. It is also worth mentioning that 45 percent of those extreme poor were pulled out of poverty within the last 5 years.

In the time of proposing budget for the current fiscal year FY , scrutinizing the progress rate, they have drawn an assumption that poverty will be reduced to They further believe that, extreme poverty will be totally eliminated from this country by To attain the target the budget proposal contains various programmes worth Tk. Social Safety Net Programmes and Poverty Reduction Recent years have seen a perceptible increase in interest in social safety nets within developing countries including Bangladesh.

Historically, public safety net efforts in Bangladesh have clustered around the twin themes of food rations and post-disaster relief. The third cluster has been informal safety nets at family and community levels to address issues of demographic and social shocks. There has also been pension scheme for state employees. In recent years, however, safety nets have transcended these historical moorings and have graduated to a mainstream social and developmental concern.

In this coverage, the share of beneficiary families in the rural area is In order to reduce poverty the areas of spending have been grouped into two services i. Poverty Reduction Policy and Strategy Bangladesh has laid special emphasis to make safety net programmes more target oriented with a view to accelerating the poverty eradication process. Combating Poverty and Vulnerability in Bangladesh through Social protection The diverse underlying causes of poverty in Bangladesh include vulnerability, social exclusion, and lack of assets and income opportunity.

Risks and vulnerability are mainstream problems in the lives of the average Bangladeshi and are recognized as such by governments, individuals and communities. There are also micro-credit programmes, allowances for freedom fighters and so on. Distressed people particularly women, children and disabled persons have been given priority under Social Safety Net.

They are implemented through both non-development budget and development budget. Social protection encompasses: cash transfer allowances; cash transfer special , food security, new funds for programs. Social empowerment includes: stipends, housing and rehabilitation, micro-credit, miscellaneous funds, development programs. Results show that the distribution of income is much more unequal than the distribution of consumption.

The growing income inequality is of major concern to the Government. Though not so much, there is a inclination towards addressing the income inequality problem through a range of measures including creating better access to high productivity, income generating jobs; improving farm productivity and incomes; sharpening the focus on equity aspects of public spending on education, health, family planning; nutrition and water supply; reducing the regional disparity of growth; and improving the access of the poor to means of production fertilizer, seeds, water, electricity and rural roads ; and by improving the access of the poor to institutional finance.

Improving voice and access to information The poor are often excluded from markets in remote areas, undermining their economic activities. Increasing information and voice can address exclusion at household, community and national level. Realizing the fact the Government of Bangladesh along with its development partners are undertaking programmes to remove the information access barriers.

Social protection and poverty reduction Recent years have seen a perceptible increase in interest in social safety nets within developing countries including Bangladesh. It has been following 'free-float currency' policy which appears to be a mere luxury with both export and import sectors of the country suffering from structural rigidities.

Free float of Bangladesh currency along with erosion of dollar vis-a-vis other Introduction The positive relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction is not automatic. In Bangladesh, development expenditures have been growing in various proportions in agriculture, rural development, water resources, infrastructure, education and health sector. Each of these sectors impacts growth and poverty reduction differently.

Allocation on agriculture, rural development, health, education and social safety net impacts poverty reduction at a higher rate and impacts economic growth too. Investment in infrastructure development, capital intensive industrialization, and some service sectors may boost up economic growth at a higher rate but may not impact poverty reduction at the desired rate.

There is no doubt that faster economic growth is associated with faster poverty reduction. In case of Bangladesh, in-spite of some remarkable positive performance against some indicators, aggregate poverty rates still remain high. Thus, it is high time to look forward for other options and means to accelerate economic growth and poverty reduction.

Reform is Critical for Growth and Poverty Reduction The fundamental development constraints in Bangladesh are poor governance, corruption, law and order, public service delivery, and effectiveness of public expenditures to improve human development. It is Evidence from a long-run panel in Bangladesh Abstract We assess the effects of the dramatic rise in agricultural commodity prices during on income dynamics and poverty among rural households in Bangladesh.

A unique panel data set allows us to put the effects of recent events in the context of long-run trends in income and poverty. We use data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of rural households in Bangladesh collected in four waves in , , , and Nargis and Hossain analysed income dynamics and poverty incidence for the first three waves, finding a declining trend in both the incidence and severity of poverty, aided in particular by human capital development and the off-farm employment opportunities.

We update and extend the analysis to include data collected in , at the height of a spike in agricultural prices. We find that the price of a balanced food basket increased by more than 50 percent during , while household income rose only 15 percent. As a result the incidence and severity of rural poverty in Bangladesh sunk to pre levels during Thus the price spikes in helped push an additional 13 million people into poverty in rural Bangladesh.

Moreover, we find that the determinants of poverty have not been time-invariant. In particular, agricultural production, which had previously been associated with a higher incidence of poverty, served as a hedge The main objective of the study is to look into the overall impact of the existing safety net programs on poverty reduction in Bangladesh. The paper also looks into the impact of the existing safety net programs on reducing inequality. Executive Summary i 2. Introduction 1 2.

The Poverty Situation of Bangladesh 1 2. Social Safety Nets 1 3. Social Safety Nets of Bangladesh 2 3. Structure of Social Safety Nets 4 3. Trends in Social Safety Nets 7 4. Social Safety Nets and Poverty 9 4. Inequality Effect of Social Safety Nets 9 5. Conclusion 10 6. Recommendations 10 7. Bibliography 12 1. Executive Summary Social safety net is a measure taken by We considered your remarks and instructions very carefully while preparing this report.

We have tried to visualize all the areas related to this topic. We also used your lecture to fulfill your requirements. We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to you for your tiresome efforts for us which provided us the opportunity to prepare this report. We have tried our level best to present this assignment according to the vital standard and requirements. While preparing this report we have enriched our knowledge a lot about role of NGO in poverty reduction in Bangladesh.

We appreciate this opportunity to demonstrate ore educational and analytical skills. Thank you. Sincerely yours, Muhammad Kawsar Khan Executive Summary Social safety net is a measure taken by the government in order to prevent the vulnerable section of its But the proportion of poverty reduction is not equal everywhere in the country, particularly the coastal regions - having vicinity to the Bay of Bengal differs from the rest of the country in terms of highest vulnerability for climatic change impacts and highest poverty levels as well.

It is predicted that frequent extreme events in coastal regions are the main impediment to attain national poverty levels. This research proposal aim is to establish a relationship between climate change impacts and change in poverty disparity by comparing coastal areas with other regions in Bangladesh over the last 20 years. The study will be based on year-wise comparative data analysis regarding affected areas, damages, development activities, socio-economic variables and poverty levels since to This research hypothetically foresees that higher extreme events affect and much damage will be created higher poverty gaps and disparity in coastal areas than the other parts of the country.

Keywords: climate change, poverty disparity, coastal areas, Bangladesh. Proposed Supervisor: Dr. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and is mostly densely inhabited. The major challenge to prosperous growth is the vulnerability of the land to cyclones and floods. This growth has been helped by remittances from expatriates as well.

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Bangladesh is a poor developing country. Our country's economy by incomparable poverty and resulting delinquencies high level of unemployment, low level of. Bangladesh's Poverty Situation Bangladesh Poverty Is A Essay Some of the causes for poverty in Bangladesh are unemployment, income distribution. However, poverty remains a serious problem that hinders Bangladesh's ambition of becoming a middle-income country. Although there are many.