To demonstrate the quantitative differences that indicate a comparative change in the same indicator studied in your research paper, a bar graph is usually used — the Gantt chart. It is usually a consequence of the influence of the probabilistic factor uncontrolled by the experimenter and indicates a lack of methodological purity of the experiment. Therefore, one must present on the histogram their average quadratic deviations for visual proof of the reliability of the quantitative differences of the average values of the indicator if it is not done in the text or in the table.
Quite enough, just mention this fact in the text, and in case of urgent need, refer to the appropriate table. Can you use graphs in research papers? When constructing a histogram, it is necessary to sign the names of the axes vertical and horizontal , and in relation to the vertical axis, also create a scale with divisions of a certain dimension.
The accuracy of these divisions the frequency of marking on the vertical axis should allow to visually determining the value of the displayed property of the compared values of the indicator. At the same time, the accuracy of the divisions must be such that it is visually possible to easily determine the smallest difference between the columns shown — the averaged values.
Use instead of color, different hatching, and, for neighboring columns and sectors; it is clearly distinguishable for example, right lateral, and left — oblique or pointed. To demonstrate the trend of change and not the magnitude of the differences over time or under the influence of different intensities of the same factor, or for graphical representation of the mathematical relationship between the indicators, it is more expedient to use the chart in research papers and also for creating your schedule.
Can research papers have charts? Thanks to the graphic image, the tendency-direction, intensity and nature of the revealed changes or interrelations are more clearly monitored. For this, it is necessary to always sign both axes of the coordinates of the graph both ordinates and abscissas with the names of the corresponding indicators or only time units for the abscissa axis.
In addition, both these axes must have a scale a division with the corresponding digitization , the accuracy of which allows us to determine the numerical values of any point on the graph. First of all, this refers to the experimentally obtained points-values on the basis of which the graph is constructed. Due to this, visual detection of the existence or absence of interrelation between the studied indicators is simplified, which can serve as a basis for further refinement of it by special statistical methods.
In this case, it should be stressed once again that it is impossible to determine which of these two interrelated indicators, and which function, cannot be done by any statistical methods. To determine the cause-effect relationship between the indicators studied, and in such a way to confirm the fact of the change of one of them, only under the influence of the other, it is necessary to conduct purposeful experiments to identify which of them is a function and which is the argument.
It is not advisable to construct a graph if there are fewer than four experimentally obtained or averaged values points for each of the indicators considered. This is explained by the fact that it is difficult to determine from three or fewer points a reliably existing trend of change especially nonlinear.
It is more expedient to present such data with either a text or a histogram with compared columns-values , which will fairly well reflect the changes obtained without claiming a tendency. And the author does not need to discuss their orientation, but rather confine oneself, only by a comparative analysis of the available quantitative differences more, less. Its result can be presented, for example, with a text comment that at such and such a value of one indicator the value of the other was such-and-such, and for another such-and-such.
Also, the article should not use a graph in research paper if in the experiment the changes of the same index are fixed under the individual influence of different experimental factors conditions. For this, it is better to use a bar graph, where the names of these different factors will be listed horizontally, and the property of the indicator under study, whose values correspond to the effect of different experimental factors, will be shown vertically. Contents Can you put pictures in a research paper Can a research paper have pictures, graphs, charts?
Types of graphic images How to include figures in a research paper? When using figures in a research paper, always think of your reader. What is the easiest figure for your reader to understand? How can you present the data in the simplest and most effective way? For instance, a photograph may be the best choice if you want your reader to understand spatial relationships.
Effective data presentation in research papers requires understanding the common errors that make data presentation ineffective. These common mistakes include using the wrong type of figure for the data. For instance, using a scatterplot instead of a bar graph for showing levels of hydration is a mistake. Another common mistake is that some authors tend to italicize the table number.
Remember, only the table title should be italicized. Another common mistake is failing to attribute the table. This should help avoid any issues with plagiarism. The reader is given a chance to understand data through visual content. When writing a research paper, these elements should be considered as part of good research writing.
APA research papers, MLA research papers, and other manuscripts require visual content if the data is too complex or voluminous. The importance of tables and graphs is underscored by the main purpose of writing, and that is to be understood. About Us. Contact Us. S Samia Nossier. Enago is a very useful site. It covers nearly all topics of research writing and publishing in a simple, clear, attractive way. Thank you. J Joseph Philip.
Planning your paper: When to use tables and figures in scientific papers Producing effective tables and figures requires careful planning that begins at the manuscript writing stage itself. Table 1: How to choose between tables, figures, and text to present data. Best practices for presentation of tables and figures in scientific papers General guidelines:. Ensure that display items are self-explanatory : Some readers and certainly reviewers and journal editors turn their attention to the tables and figures before they read the entire text, so these display items should be self-contained.
Create effective tables for your research paper. Organize your findings and results using the right format. Try this course for free with R Upskill Membership. This defeats the very purpose efficiency and clarity of having a table or figure. Be consistent : 6,9,12,17 Ensure consistency between values or details in a table e. Also ensure that column heads, axis labels, figure labels, etc.
Adhere to journal guidelines : Check what your target journal has to say about issues like the number of tables and figures, the style of numbering, titles, image resolution, file formats, etc. Combine repetitive tables : Tables and figures that present repetitive information will impair communication rather than enhance it.
Do you have any questions related to writing and publishing your research paper? Divide the data : 7 When presenting large amounts of information, divide the data into clear and appropriate categories and present them in columns titled accurately and descriptively.
Watch the extent of data in your tables : If the data you have to present is extensive and would make the tables too cluttered or long, consider making the tables a part of the Appendix or supplemental material.
De-clutter your table : Ensure that there is sufficient spacing between columns and rows 7 and that the layout does not make the table look too messy or crowded. Ensure image clarity : Make sure that all the parts of the figure are clear: 18 Use standard font; check that labels are legible against the figure background; and ensure that images are sharp.
Use legends to explain the key message : 25 Figure legends are pivotal to the effectiveness of a figure. Use them to draw attention to the central message as well as to explain abbreviations and symbols. Label all important parts : Label the key sections and parts of schematic diagrams and photographs, and all axes, curves, and data sets in graphs and data plots. Give specifics : Include scale bars in images and maps; specify units wherever quantities are listed; include legends in maps and schematics; and specify latitudes and longitudes on maps.
This section presents one example each of a well-prepared table and a well-designed figure. The table below is taken from a dietary study on chick-rearing macaroni penguins 26 and is an example of an effective table for the following reasons:. The column heads are descriptive and clearly indicate the nature of the data presented. It is self-contained and can be understood quite well even without reference to the entire paper.
Superscript letters and notes are used to offer additional, clarifying information. Sufficient spacing is present between columns and rows; the layout is clean, and the font is legible. The figure below from a paper on the efficacy of oyster reefs as natural breakwaters 27 , scores on several counts:. Figures and tables, or display items, are powerful communication tools—they give your man uscript a professional feel, attract and sustain the interest of readers, and efficiently present large amounts of complex information.
You might be interested in checking out this insightful course: Create effective tables for your research paper. Council of Science Editors. Journal Style and Format. In Council of Science Editors Eds. American Psychological Association. APA Editorial Style. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Journal of General Internal Medicine, ; — Durbin CG Jr.
Respiratory Care, ; 49 10 : — Reporting Results in Tables and Figures. In Guidelines in the Analysis Phase pp. The Importance of Figures and Tables. Clark JC. Effective Tables and Figures. McMillan VE. Using Tables and Figures. In Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences pp. New York: St. American Psychologist, ; 57 10 : — Purdue Online Writing Lab.
APA Tables and Figures 1. SAGE Publications. Paradise C. Annals of Emergency Medicine, ; 48 6 : — Institute of Food Technologists. Author Guidelines. Informative Presentation of Tables, Graphs and Statistics. Hoagland N. Author Aid Resource Library. Tables and Figures: Some Basic Advice. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
BMJ Publishing Group. The Geological Society of America. Geology Guidelines. Author Services: Electronic Artwork Guidelines. Electronic Artwork—An Introduction. PLOS Biology. When using figures in a research paper, always think of your reader. What is the easiest figure for your reader to understand? How can you present the data in the simplest and most effective way?
For instance, a photograph may be the best choice if you want your reader to understand spatial relationships. Effective data presentation in research papers requires understanding the common errors that make data presentation ineffective. These common mistakes include using the wrong type of figure for the data. For instance, using a scatterplot instead of a bar graph for showing levels of hydration is a mistake.
Another common mistake is that some authors tend to italicize the table number. Remember, only the table title should be italicized. Another common mistake is failing to attribute the table. This should help avoid any issues with plagiarism. The reader is given a chance to understand data through visual content. When writing a research paper, these elements should be considered as part of good research writing.
APA research papers, MLA research papers, and other manuscripts require visual content if the data is too complex or voluminous. The importance of tables and graphs is underscored by the main purpose of writing, and that is to be understood. Subscribe for free to get unrestricted access to all our resources on research writing and academic publishing including:. We hate spam too. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you. Data visualization tips. Last updated Apr 16, Show Comments 2.