igcse geography coursework sample

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Igcse geography coursework sample college essay writer websites

Igcse geography coursework sample

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The river had become calmer and there was very little change in the gradient. Direction of flow on of w Direction of flow Vegetation on the banks of the river. Although this was not a site and we did not sample here, we can tell that the clasts are smooth and that there is a downward gradient as the water goes into the Bristol Channel. The water percolates through the limestone and came back up on the beach into the Bristol Channel.

Water emerging from underground Page 26 of 59 Problems and Limitations encountered in Data Collection There were many problems that we encountered on our river study. Some we could not change but others we could. Physical Factors One physical problem was that there was debris in the river such as tree branches and clasts. This affected measurements such as depth and velocity, because there was a build up of water due to this river substrate.

This meant that many readings were difficult to measure accurately. There was a lack of rain before we went on this field trip which meant that the river in some parts was very shallow and could have limited the reliability of the data. At some points, the impeller could not turn due to the fact that the river was too shallow and this could have also been because there was a lack of rain.

This meant that, especially in the upper course sites that the readings had to be defaulted at seconds. Human factors One human problem was that the angularity of the clasts had to be decided by eye. Instead of measuring the clasts size, we could have measured its volume in order to make it more accurate.

Another human limitation was that we could have taken ten measurements for every factor per site. This would have meant a wider range of results to interpret. The reason that this was not undertaken was because of the limited amount of time we had to sample the river.

Accessibility of land was a human limitation because part of the river was blocked because it was in private land. This meant that we could not sample in this area and therefore we could not tell if the trends of the previous sites would continue. Debris such as leaves, rocks and tree branches blocking the flow of the river.

Page 27 of 59 Data Presentation Page 28 of 59 In this section I shall be presenting my data as graphs and describing the basic trends that are seen in them. I will also be justifying why I used a particular type of graph as oppose to another one. Graphs to show the depth of the river along all eight sites I have chosen to represent the depth of the river as a bar chart because it is very easy to visualize the depth of the river in this way.

You can also tell where the deepest part of the river was along each of the eight sites. Bar charts are used when the change is large. Measurements 1 and 2 are the same at 0. Page 29 of 59 The readings at site 2 tell us that the river was increasing in depth from an average of 0.

This reading could be seen as an outlier. An explanation of why this outlier occurred may have been because there were many objects such as tree branches in the river which could have caused a build up of water where we were measuring the depth. Reading 3 was quite low when compared to the other readings at 0. Reading 1 was the shallowest depth and was 0. The depth then increased by 0. The depth then steadily increased by 0. Page 30 of 59 At Site 4 the average depth was 0.

The depth stayed the same at readings 1 and 2 and was 0. It then increased slightly by 0. At site 5 the five readings taken across the width of the channel were quite varied. Reading 2 was the lowest measurment that was taken and was 0. This may lead us to believe that this was an outlier seeing as none of the other results are this low.

The depth then increased after reading 2 until 4 where it was at its highest of 0. The depth then decreased until reading 5 where it was 0. Page 31 of 59 The depth at site 6 generally decreased from 0. Reading 1 had a depth of 0. The depth then deepened at reading 2 where it was 0. At readings 4 and 5 the readings increased to 0. At reading 1 the depth was 0. The depth then increased at reading 2 where it was 0.

The depth then decreased at reading 5 by 0. Page 32 of 59 At site 8 our readings showed us that this was overall the deepest part of the river. The depth at reading 1 was 0. The river increased in depth at site 2 where it was 0. This can be seen at site 1 where the average depth was 0. There is a 0. Page 34 of 59 Graphs showing the Cross sectional of each site A x-y plot was chosen to represent the cross sectionof the river because it is easy to see how the river changed as we progressed through the sites.

It was used to determine relationships between the width and depth. We did not use a bar graph to represent this data because they are used to track changes over time. At site 1 the cross sectional area was 0. There was an unexpected drop in the depth of the river at the 5th plot where it was 0.

At site 2 the cross sectional area was 0. Plot 6 was an unexpected rapid increase in the depth which was an outlier because it was outside the range of the other results. Page 35 of 59 At site 3 the cross sectional area was 0. The width of the river stayed the same as the previous site which was unexpected because the width was supposed to increase as you travel from source to mouth.

At site 4 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth at plots were very close to each other, until there was a decrease in the depth at plot 6 until the river bank. The width of the river increased by 1. Page 36 of 59 At site 5 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased and then decreased at plot 3, where the result was an outlier. The depth then increased until plot 5, where the water was at its deepest , and then decreased until the river bank.

The width of the river decreased by 1. The depth increases until plot 3, until plot 4 where there is a decrease. The width increased by 1. Page 37 of 59 At site 7 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased until plot 5 and then it decreased.

The depth was at its highest near the middle of the river at plot 5 which was 0. The width of the river had unexpectedly decreased by 0. The depth increases until plot 4 where it is 0. The width of the river increased from 2. Page 38 of 59 CSA base map Page 39 of 59 Width along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen to represent my data for width as a lateral bar chart because it is very easy to see the trends and where the river was at its narrowest and widest.

Bar graphs are used to track changes over each site. The width of the river starts to increase as we go from site1to site 4 by 2. At site 4 the river was very wide which was unexpected because the widest part of the river was supposed to be the nearest to the mouth. There was an unexpected drop of 1. The width then increased until site 7 where there was a slight decrease, and then there was a final increase at site 8.

Overall, we can see that the river increased in width from 0. Page 40 of 59 Gradient along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen a line graph to show the gradient of the river Holford because it is very easy to see if the gradient was increasing or decreasing. You can also see the rate at which the river is decreasing in gradient with this type of graph.

A line graph was used instead of a bar chart because when smaller changes exist, line graphs are better to use than bar graphs. The gradient of the river starts to decrease rapidly as you go from site1 to site 2. Then the river starts to decline at a slower rate until site 4 where it is 0. After this, there was an unexpected increase in the gradient of the river until site 5. The river then decreased from site 5 to site 8.

Overall, there is a 0. Page 41 of 59 Formulae Sheet Page 42 of 59 Data Analysis Scatter graphs will be used to show the possibility of a positive correlationbetween two variables, such as width and the distance from the source. Simply looking at the line of best fit will tell us if there is a strong positive relationship, no relationship, or a negative relationship between the two variables.

This technique tells us whether the correlation is really mathematically significant or if it could have been the result of chance alone. Method of finding R2 1 State if there is a relationship between your two sets of readings. The answer will always be between 1. Page 44 of 59 My hypotheses were: 1. Width will increase as you go from source to mouth.

Depth will increase as you go from source to mouth. Gradient will decrease as you go from source to mouth Hypothesis 1: Width Scatter graph to show the change in width of the River Holford from source to mouth. It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the width increased as you went form sites This supports my hypothesis because the graph indicates that there is a correlationwhich is that, as the distance from the source increases, the width also increases. Nearly all the widths, except sites 1 and 4, are near to the line of best fit and this shows us that the correlationis quite good.

My r2 value is 0. Page 46 of 59 Significance Testing A further technique is now required to test the significance of the relationship. The r2value of 0. For our test this was 6 The result was then plotted on the significance table below in order to be assessed. If your reading is above 0. The plot of 0. From the significance test above my hypothesis is very likely to be wrong. Page 47 of 59 Possible Explanations for width results There are many possible explanations for why the width of the river followed the trend which can be seen in the graph.

The geology at the first three sites was Quartzite which is a hard, impermeable red metamorphic rock which means that water cannot percolate through it. This meant that we would not expect a large channel because the rock is resistant so is hard to be eroded and weathered away. The next three sites widths could have been affected because the geology was Marl, which is a soft, impermeable sedimentary rock.

The geology at the last two sites was limestone which is a permeable sedimentary rock and is resistant to erosion. Another explanation of why the width readings were not as the hypothesis had predicted was because of the gradient which is seen by the contour lines on the OS map on page 8. In the upper course of the river, we expected the river to have more potential energy which meant that the river was deeper rather than wider.

As we progressed to the lower course of the river, we found that the river was wider because there was more lateral erosiontaking place, which meant the widening of the channel. Where we were along the drainage basin could have changed the width of the river. An example of this is at site 3 where we were near a confluence. The river would have had more energy to erode the banks and therefore widen the river. At the first three sites there was dense forest to both sides of the river, which can be seen on the land use map on page 6.

This meant that interception by this canopy layer could stop rain water from reaching the ground and therefore decreasing surface runoff. Surface runoff is very quick and is the movement of water in any form from the atmosphere to the ground. This meant that the width of the river was expected to be very small in the forestedareas. On the other hand, the sites which were in open farm land were expected to have a wider channel because there would be little or no interception from trees and vegetation.

Page 48 of 59 Hypothesis 2: Depth It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the depth increases as you go further out from the source and therefore supports my hypothesis. There is an overall positive correlationwhich can be seen in the graph which is that, as the distance from the source increases, the depth also increases. However, some of the depths, such as at sites 1 and 2 were not near the line of best fit which could weaken the correlation.

However, we could have compared our data with the other groups completing the same study to see if they got mainly the same results as us, and this would improve the reliability of the sample. Page 51 of 59 Possible Explanations for depth results One reason why the depth increased at some sites and then decreased at others was because of gradient, which can be seen on page 8.

In the upper course of the river we expected the river to be deep because the gradient was steep and this meant that there would be vertical erosionwith more potential energy. At the later sources we expected more lateral erosion, so the river would not have been as deep. At some sites we were very near to confluences and this could have affected our results. This is because at a confluence the river has more energy and power to erode, resulting in a larger, deeper channel.

We were undertaking this study in the autumn and so there were many rotting leaves around and inside the river. A result of this was that Humic acid was formed and dissolved the river bed and thus created deeper channels. This is an example of solution. Solution is an erosional process where acids in the river dissolve the banks and the bed which results in a deeper channel.

Sites 4, 5 and 6 would have been the most affected by this because the geology there was marl which is a soft rock composed of Calcium carbonate. Near the mouth of the River Holford, the Bristol Channel , we expected the river to be slightly shallower than at the previous sites because it was losing its energy and was depositing its load, sediment. The geology, which is seen on page 8 , at the first 3 sites was Quartzite which is a hard impermeable rock.

This meant that we expected the river to be shallow at these first sites because the rock was too resistant. The geology at sites was Marl which is an impermeable, soft rock which meant that there would be more erosion taking place here. The geology at the last two sites was Limestone which is a hard, permeable rock.

Limestone is well jointed which means that the rock has vertical and horizontal bedding planes. This meant that groundwater flow would occur here, where the water moved underground through these pores and joints. This particular type of limestone was resistant to erosion so we expected the river to get narrower here. Site 4 was near an urban area, Holford , which meant that there was concrete and tarmac which formed impermeable surfaces. This meant that there would be more overland flow here which is the movement of water in any form from the atmosphere to the ground.

There had been little rain in Somerset before we went on our river study. This meant that the river would not have been as deep as it normally should have been and this could have affected our results. Page 52 of 59 Hypothesis 3 The gradient decreased from source to mouth and this can be seen in this scatter graph.

There is a negative correlationand this can be seen, as the distance from the source increases, the gradient decreases. Nearly all the gradient readings are near the line of best fit which means that the correlation is strong.

However, some of the gradient readings, such as at sites 1 and 4 are not near the line of best fit, and this may weaken the strength of the correlation. At site 5, the gradient was seen to increase and this could be an incorrect measurement. Page 54 of 59 Conclusions and Evaluation Page 55 of 59 In this section I will be seeing if my hypotheses were correct overall using data from my graphs. The limitations of the data collectionwill be explored and the changes that I would make if I were going to undertake this river study again.

My aim was to investigate the physical channel characteristics along the course of the River Holford which were the width, the depth and the gradient. My first hypothesis was that the width of the channel would increase as you went from the source to the mouth. As you can see from the table above, this hypothesis was visually accepted by looking at width graphs.

This can be seen in the width graph on page 39 which supported my hypothesis by showing a general increase from the source to the mouth. This can be seen at site 1 where the width was 0. The width increased by 2. However, at site 4, the width decreased by 1. This decrease however can be explained because there was a geology change from Quartzite to Marl. Overall, visually, my hypothesis, that the width will increase as you go from source to mouth, is accepted.

My significance test for width can be seen on page 46 and shows that my significance level, which was 0. This tells us that my results were a product of chance and that I must reject my hypothesis. My second hypothesis was that the depth of the river would increase as you went from the source to the mouth. As you can see from the table above, this hypothesis was visually accepted by looking at depth graphs.

An average depth graph can be seen on page 33 which supported my hypothesis by showing an increase as you got close to the mouth. An example of this can be seen at site 1 where my depth was 0. Page 56 of 59 then at site 8 where my depth was 0. The depth increased by 0. Overall, visually, my hypothesis, that the depth will increase as you go from source to mouth, is accepted.

My significance test for depth can be seen on page 50 and shows that my significance level, which was 0. This tells us that my results were a product of chance and that I must therefore reject my hypothesis. My third hypothesis was that gradient would decrease as you went from source to mouth. As you can see from the table above, my hypothesis was accepted visually by looking at the gradient graph which can be found on page The graph shows that the gradient decreased as you went from source to mouth and can be seen when a site 1 the gradient was 0.

Page 57 of 59 Evaluation Overall, our river study on the River Holford was very successful because we took a lot of measurements which were taken very accurately. Limitations There were some limitations when we were measuring our data and the methods we used to find the sites.

One limitation was that a stratified sampling strategy had been used for the sites because of the little time we had to carry out this study. This meant that our results were biased because we chose specific areas in which we wanted to sample, such as near confluences and on different geology types.

It was hard to get an exact depth reading because the water was always moving. This meant that we were not measuring the depth of the river accurately and weakens our results and conclusion. At the first 3 sites when we were measuring the velocity, using a hydroprop and an impeller, the water was just too shallow.

This meant that the impeller could not turn due to the fact that it was coming into contact with the river bed. As a result of this limitation some of the velocity readings were defaulted to seconds. At all the sites throughout the course of the river, all the groups were trying to collect data at the same time which resulted in them pushing water downstream at a faster rate than normal.

This meant that the impeller turned faster then normal and therefore altered our results. There were lots of objects such as tree branches in the river. These could have affected our depth results because there would have been a water build up in these areas.

This would have also affected the velocity data because the flow of the river would have been altered. Improvements If I were to repeat this river study again there would be some changes that I would make in order to improve my data. One of these changes is that I would have taken ten depth readings at each site rather than five.

This is because it would broaden our results and make then more accurate. You would also be able to see if the new depth readings followed the same trends as the data before it. Students will visit six sites on a transect from the suburbs to the inner city in Barcelona. Census data on average family income by district, map of distribution of foreign nationalities in Barcelona, health inequalities data. Sitges and Calafell. To compare the relative success of tourism, in its various forms, by employing the Butler Model.

The study involves visiting both towns and collecting data at five comparable locations in each town. These are the old historic core, the sea front, an area of historic buildings, a major shopping street and an entertainment street. Data will be collected at each site and later used to compare the two towns in relation to the Butler Model.

Sustainable tourism management index, perception survey, index of services and amenities, environmental survey, bipolar evaluation. River Tordera: visiting four sites. Students will visit four sites on the River Tordera to investigate how the river changes as it moves from source to mouth. Channel measurements: river velocity, width, depth, channel cross-sectional area, gradient and bed load. Sitges Coast. This study will also support understanding of a retreating coastline, the coast as a natural system and its processes, coastal landforms and potential conflict at the coastline.

Annotated field sketch of coastal features and digital photographs to show variations along a stretch of coast. Coastal sediment budget, local geology map, map of dominant fetch, beach replenishment costs, historic map overlays. These studies will provide an opportunity for students to deepen their knowledge and understanding of other areas of the syllabus.

Garrotxa Volcanic Natural Park. Causes of volcanic and earthquake hazards, including the role of plate boundaries and hotspots. There are a number of locations which you can choose to visit including volcanoes, historic lava flows, an active fault line, volcanic quarries and a volcano museum. Further information on each of the fieldwork opportunities can be found in the above details. This is an example programme - all programmes are fully customisable and there are other activities which can be added to your stay.

Evening: Welcome, briefing on Health and Safety and context setting for the following day's fieldwork. Evening: Two-hour follow-up session to review the day's fieldwork activities and support students in analysing and evaluating their data. The session will also set the context for the following day's fieldwork. Evening: Two-hour follow-up session to review the day's fieldwork activities and support students in analysing and evaluating their findings.

La Garrotxa Volcanic National Park or another theme-related study from those listed above. For further information or if you have an enquiry, please contact us. Course availability. Prices Provisional bookings. Page copy PDF. Location Four contrasting Catalan villages in the Barcelona region Aim To investigate the socio-economic changes in a selection of Catalan villages Description Students will visit four villages located between 40 and kilometres from Barcelona to investigate if Cloke's index of rurality can be applied to villages in the Barcelona region Primary data collection Quantitative Environmental quality survey, price of a convenience item, index of services and amenities, structured questionnaire, investigation of transport links Qualitative Annotated photographs showing evidence of change, interviews with businesses e.

Location Transect from Pedralbes to El Raval, Barcelona Aim To investigate change in urban land use and environmental quality Description Students will visit six sites on a transect from the suburbs to the inner city in Barcelona Primary data collection Quantitative Environmental quality survey, land use survey Qualitative Annotated photographs Secondary data provided Census data on average family income by district, map of distribution of foreign nationalities in Barcelona, health inequalities data.

Location Sitges and Calafell Aim To compare the relative success of tourism, in its various forms, by employing the Butler Model Description The study involves visiting both towns and collecting data at five comparable locations in each town. Data will be collected at each site and later used to compare the two towns in relation to the Butler Model Primary data collection Quantitative Sustainable tourism management index, perception survey, index of services and amenities, environmental survey, bipolar evaluation Qualitative Photographs Secondary data provided Historical context on the development of tourism in Sitges and Calafell.

Location River Tordera: visiting four sites Aim To investigate changes in river channel characteristics from source to mouth Description Students will visit four sites on the River Tordera to investigate how the river changes as it moves from source to mouth Primary data collection Quantitative Channel measurements: river velocity, width, depth, channel cross-sectional area, gradient and bed load Qualitative Annotated field sketch and digital photographs to show channel changes Secondary data provided A GIS topographic map and data for study catchment.

Primary data collection Quantitative Beach profile: length, height and slope of beach Sediment: size and shape of material along the transect Qualitative Annotated field sketch of coastal features and digital photographs to show variations along a stretch of coast Secondary data provided Coastal sediment budget, local geology map, map of dominant fetch, beach replenishment costs, historic map overlays.

Location Garrotxa Volcanic Natural Park Syllabus content Causes of volcanic and earthquake hazards, including the role of plate boundaries and hotspots. Reasons why people continue to live in areas at risk from hazard events. Description There are a number of locations which you can choose to visit including volcanoes, historic lava flows, an active fault line, volcanic quarries and a volcano museum.

The session will also set the context for the following day's fieldwork Evening meal Day 3 Breakfast Full day: Physical Geography Fieldwork Opportunity Select from River Tordera or Sitges Coast Evening: Two-hour follow-up session to review the day's fieldwork activities and support students in analysing and evaluating their findings.

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Therefore, each year the coursework marks of some schools have to be adjusted, up or down, as a result of external moderation. If this happens, reasons are given by the moderator in a report sent to the school. The Coursework Handbook explains this in more detail.

All teachers should read the handbook carefully before starting on coursework. Can I adapt the mark scheme for coursework? Guidance on how to use the generic mark scheme it and sample coursework assignments with annotations and marks is in the Coursework Handbook. All teachers should read the handbook carefully before starting coursework. Most of my learners are not First Language English speakers, and their written English is not fluent. Does this disadvantage them?

No, learners are assessed on the content they produce, not on their English. The majority of learners are not First Language English speakers, so examiners are very experienced in assessing the work of learners whose English is in some way deficient. They are instructed to be sensitive in the interpretation of what has been written, and to give the benefit of the doubt to the learner. No marks are given for spelling, grammar, expression or any other non-subject criterion.

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In order to measure the width, we had to face upstream and measure from left to right. We put the measuring tape right to the edge of the banks and then read out the reading. It only required two people to measure the width and so the other members of the group were writing down the readings in meters. Measuring the width of the river. Depth After the width was measured we found the depth.

The depth of the river was calculated using a ridged meter ruler and it was predicted that as we continued downstream, the river would get deeper. While measuring the depth we used the narrow edge of the metre ruler to prevent a build up of water and stood after the metre ruler in order not to affect the results. Direction of flow Direction of flow Page 17 of 59 Wetted Perimeter The third reading we took was the wetted perimeter. The wetted perimeter was measured using a measuring tape because it is flexible.

Firstly, the measuring tape was spread along the width of the river and left slacking. Then, someone in the group walked in a straight line along the measuring tape and read the measurement out to be recorded. While we were measuring the wetted perimeter we were careful to work upstream and from the left bank to right bank so not to alter our readings. Measuring the wetted perimeter of the River Holford.

Velocity The velocity was measured using a hydroprop and an impeller. The impeller was placed onto the hydroprop, and then put two thirds of the depth into the river in order to prevent the impeller from touching the bed. A stopwatch was started immediately as the impeller was placed into the water and stopped when the impeller stopped.

Some readings were defaulted at seconds because at some sites, the water was too shallow for the impeller to go in. Measuring the velocity Direction of flow Direction of flow Page 18 of 59 Angularity and Size of Bed load First, 15 clasts were picked up from the river bed at random, with our eyes closed so that we were not biased in the selection of the clasts. Then the angularity of the clasts were measured by using the cailleux roundness index chart. Next, the longest axis of the clasts were measured using a rigid meter ruler and then recorded.

Measuring the longest Axis of the clasts. Measuring the angularity of the clasts. Gradient The last reading that we had to take at each site was the Gradient. First, one group member went into the river and held the E-ruler straight just above the tip of their boot. The readings were then noted for each site. Page 19 of 59 Equipment 1 The hydroprop and the impeller were used to measure the velocity of the River Holford.

The impeller was attached to the hydroprop and were placed two thirds of the depth of the river in order to stop there being frictionbetween the impeller and the bed. The impeller turned and a stop watch was started, and stopped when the impeller stopped rotating. It was ideal for these two measurements because it was rigid and very easy to read. It was also used to split the river up into 5 parts when we were finding out the gradient. Impellor and hydroprop 2. Tape measure 4.

E-ruler Page 20 of 59 Secondary Data Secondary data is data that we have to rely on. I used a number of different sources such as, the internet and maps in order to support the primary data collected. An ordnance survey map of the area around the River Holford was used to predict if the gradient was decreasing in order to strengthen the readings. Our gradient data was mostly secondary data because we did not physically take all of the eight measurements ourselves.

We only measured one out of the eight sites. Weather information of Somerset was looked up on the internet to see if there was rain prior to our study. If there was a lot of rain or no rain at all, then this factor would be taken into consideration when our data was analysed. This will show us whether my results occurred by chance and if we should accept or reject my hypotheses.

It is in a wooded area with steep sides and there is a very obvious drop in gradient as you continue from the source to site 1. Site 1 is a small stream which had very little depth and width because it had not rained prior to our trip. The clasts were all angular here and the geology was Devonian Quartzite.

Site 2- The river at site 2 was very narrow but was getting deeper as predicted. The geology in this area was Quartzite and the gradient was decreasing. Direction of flow Direction of flow Angular clasts Page 22 of 59 Site 3- At this site, the river widened considerably when compared to site 2 but still stayed relatively the same depth. The rock type was still Quartzite and there was non-coniferous woodland around the river.

Site 4- At this site we were near to a settlement called Holford. The geology at this site was Marl. The cross sectional area also increased because we were in the middle course of the river. Site 6- At this site, there was a rapid increase in the velocity of the river.

The environment here was very similar to that of site 1 because there were steep sides which were covered with dense trees and vegetation. The geology here was still Marl. Page 24 of 59 Site 7- This site was in the lower course of the river and was on Jurassic Limestone. The river had calmed down and its velocity decreased. The cross sectional area increased because we were in the lower course of the river. There was very little gradient here and the clasts were decreasing in size and were mostly rounded.

This part of the river was on Jurassic Limestone and there were vast amounts of vegetation that had grown on the river banks here. The river had become calmer and there was very little change in the gradient. Direction of flow on of w Direction of flow Vegetation on the banks of the river.

Although this was not a site and we did not sample here, we can tell that the clasts are smooth and that there is a downward gradient as the water goes into the Bristol Channel. The water percolates through the limestone and came back up on the beach into the Bristol Channel. Water emerging from underground Page 26 of 59 Problems and Limitations encountered in Data Collection There were many problems that we encountered on our river study. Some we could not change but others we could.

Physical Factors One physical problem was that there was debris in the river such as tree branches and clasts. This affected measurements such as depth and velocity, because there was a build up of water due to this river substrate.

This meant that many readings were difficult to measure accurately. There was a lack of rain before we went on this field trip which meant that the river in some parts was very shallow and could have limited the reliability of the data. At some points, the impeller could not turn due to the fact that the river was too shallow and this could have also been because there was a lack of rain. This meant that, especially in the upper course sites that the readings had to be defaulted at seconds.

Human factors One human problem was that the angularity of the clasts had to be decided by eye. Instead of measuring the clasts size, we could have measured its volume in order to make it more accurate. Another human limitation was that we could have taken ten measurements for every factor per site. This would have meant a wider range of results to interpret. The reason that this was not undertaken was because of the limited amount of time we had to sample the river.

Accessibility of land was a human limitation because part of the river was blocked because it was in private land. This meant that we could not sample in this area and therefore we could not tell if the trends of the previous sites would continue. Debris such as leaves, rocks and tree branches blocking the flow of the river. Page 27 of 59 Data Presentation Page 28 of 59 In this section I shall be presenting my data as graphs and describing the basic trends that are seen in them.

I will also be justifying why I used a particular type of graph as oppose to another one. Graphs to show the depth of the river along all eight sites I have chosen to represent the depth of the river as a bar chart because it is very easy to visualize the depth of the river in this way.

You can also tell where the deepest part of the river was along each of the eight sites. Bar charts are used when the change is large. Measurements 1 and 2 are the same at 0. Page 29 of 59 The readings at site 2 tell us that the river was increasing in depth from an average of 0. This reading could be seen as an outlier. An explanation of why this outlier occurred may have been because there were many objects such as tree branches in the river which could have caused a build up of water where we were measuring the depth.

Reading 3 was quite low when compared to the other readings at 0. Reading 1 was the shallowest depth and was 0. The depth then increased by 0. The depth then steadily increased by 0. Page 30 of 59 At Site 4 the average depth was 0. The depth stayed the same at readings 1 and 2 and was 0.

It then increased slightly by 0. At site 5 the five readings taken across the width of the channel were quite varied. Reading 2 was the lowest measurment that was taken and was 0. This may lead us to believe that this was an outlier seeing as none of the other results are this low.

The depth then increased after reading 2 until 4 where it was at its highest of 0. The depth then decreased until reading 5 where it was 0. Page 31 of 59 The depth at site 6 generally decreased from 0. Reading 1 had a depth of 0. The depth then deepened at reading 2 where it was 0. At readings 4 and 5 the readings increased to 0.

At reading 1 the depth was 0. The depth then increased at reading 2 where it was 0. The depth then decreased at reading 5 by 0. Page 32 of 59 At site 8 our readings showed us that this was overall the deepest part of the river. The depth at reading 1 was 0. The river increased in depth at site 2 where it was 0. This can be seen at site 1 where the average depth was 0. There is a 0. Page 34 of 59 Graphs showing the Cross sectional of each site A x-y plot was chosen to represent the cross sectionof the river because it is easy to see how the river changed as we progressed through the sites.

It was used to determine relationships between the width and depth. We did not use a bar graph to represent this data because they are used to track changes over time. At site 1 the cross sectional area was 0. There was an unexpected drop in the depth of the river at the 5th plot where it was 0.

At site 2 the cross sectional area was 0. Plot 6 was an unexpected rapid increase in the depth which was an outlier because it was outside the range of the other results. Page 35 of 59 At site 3 the cross sectional area was 0. The width of the river stayed the same as the previous site which was unexpected because the width was supposed to increase as you travel from source to mouth.

At site 4 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth at plots were very close to each other, until there was a decrease in the depth at plot 6 until the river bank. The width of the river increased by 1. Page 36 of 59 At site 5 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased and then decreased at plot 3, where the result was an outlier.

The depth then increased until plot 5, where the water was at its deepest , and then decreased until the river bank. The width of the river decreased by 1. The depth increases until plot 3, until plot 4 where there is a decrease.

The width increased by 1. Page 37 of 59 At site 7 the cross sectional area was 0. The depth increased until plot 5 and then it decreased. The depth was at its highest near the middle of the river at plot 5 which was 0. The width of the river had unexpectedly decreased by 0. The depth increases until plot 4 where it is 0.

The width of the river increased from 2. Page 38 of 59 CSA base map Page 39 of 59 Width along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen to represent my data for width as a lateral bar chart because it is very easy to see the trends and where the river was at its narrowest and widest. Bar graphs are used to track changes over each site. The width of the river starts to increase as we go from site1to site 4 by 2.

At site 4 the river was very wide which was unexpected because the widest part of the river was supposed to be the nearest to the mouth. There was an unexpected drop of 1. The width then increased until site 7 where there was a slight decrease, and then there was a final increase at site 8. Overall, we can see that the river increased in width from 0.

Page 40 of 59 Gradient along the eight sites of the river Holford I have chosen a line graph to show the gradient of the river Holford because it is very easy to see if the gradient was increasing or decreasing. You can also see the rate at which the river is decreasing in gradient with this type of graph. A line graph was used instead of a bar chart because when smaller changes exist, line graphs are better to use than bar graphs.

The gradient of the river starts to decrease rapidly as you go from site1 to site 2. Then the river starts to decline at a slower rate until site 4 where it is 0. After this, there was an unexpected increase in the gradient of the river until site 5. The river then decreased from site 5 to site 8. Overall, there is a 0. Page 41 of 59 Formulae Sheet Page 42 of 59 Data Analysis Scatter graphs will be used to show the possibility of a positive correlationbetween two variables, such as width and the distance from the source.

Simply looking at the line of best fit will tell us if there is a strong positive relationship, no relationship, or a negative relationship between the two variables. This technique tells us whether the correlation is really mathematically significant or if it could have been the result of chance alone. Method of finding R2 1 State if there is a relationship between your two sets of readings.

The answer will always be between 1. Page 44 of 59 My hypotheses were: 1. Width will increase as you go from source to mouth. Depth will increase as you go from source to mouth. Gradient will decrease as you go from source to mouth Hypothesis 1: Width Scatter graph to show the change in width of the River Holford from source to mouth. It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the width increased as you went form sites This supports my hypothesis because the graph indicates that there is a correlationwhich is that, as the distance from the source increases, the width also increases.

Nearly all the widths, except sites 1 and 4, are near to the line of best fit and this shows us that the correlationis quite good. My r2 value is 0. Page 46 of 59 Significance Testing A further technique is now required to test the significance of the relationship. The r2value of 0. For our test this was 6 The result was then plotted on the significance table below in order to be assessed. If your reading is above 0. The plot of 0. From the significance test above my hypothesis is very likely to be wrong.

Page 47 of 59 Possible Explanations for width results There are many possible explanations for why the width of the river followed the trend which can be seen in the graph. The geology at the first three sites was Quartzite which is a hard, impermeable red metamorphic rock which means that water cannot percolate through it. This meant that we would not expect a large channel because the rock is resistant so is hard to be eroded and weathered away.

The next three sites widths could have been affected because the geology was Marl, which is a soft, impermeable sedimentary rock. The geology at the last two sites was limestone which is a permeable sedimentary rock and is resistant to erosion. Another explanation of why the width readings were not as the hypothesis had predicted was because of the gradient which is seen by the contour lines on the OS map on page 8.

In the upper course of the river, we expected the river to have more potential energy which meant that the river was deeper rather than wider. As we progressed to the lower course of the river, we found that the river was wider because there was more lateral erosiontaking place, which meant the widening of the channel.

Where we were along the drainage basin could have changed the width of the river. An example of this is at site 3 where we were near a confluence. The river would have had more energy to erode the banks and therefore widen the river. At the first three sites there was dense forest to both sides of the river, which can be seen on the land use map on page 6. This meant that interception by this canopy layer could stop rain water from reaching the ground and therefore decreasing surface runoff.

Surface runoff is very quick and is the movement of water in any form from the atmosphere to the ground. This meant that the width of the river was expected to be very small in the forestedareas. On the other hand, the sites which were in open farm land were expected to have a wider channel because there would be little or no interception from trees and vegetation. Page 48 of 59 Hypothesis 2: Depth It can be easily seen from this scatter graph that the depth increases as you go further out from the source and therefore supports my hypothesis.

There is an overall positive correlationwhich can be seen in the graph which is that, as the distance from the source increases, the depth also increases. However, some of the depths, such as at sites 1 and 2 were not near the line of best fit which could weaken the correlation. However, we could have compared our data with the other groups completing the same study to see if they got mainly the same results as us, and this would improve the reliability of the sample.

Page 51 of 59 Possible Explanations for depth results One reason why the depth increased at some sites and then decreased at others was because of gradient, which can be seen on page 8. In the upper course of the river we expected the river to be deep because the gradient was steep and this meant that there would be vertical erosionwith more potential energy.

At the later sources we expected more lateral erosion, so the river would not have been as deep. At some sites we were very near to confluences and this could have affected our results. This is because at a confluence the river has more energy and power to erode, resulting in a larger, deeper channel. We were undertaking this study in the autumn and so there were many rotting leaves around and inside the river.

A result of this was that Humic acid was formed and dissolved the river bed and thus created deeper channels. This is an example of solution. Solution is an erosional process where acids in the river dissolve the banks and the bed which results in a deeper channel. Students following the 'Coursework' option will undertake fieldwork in order to test a hypothesis. They must produce one coursework assignment, set by teachers, of up to words.

Centres must submit proposals for candidates' coursework in advance for approval by Cambridge International. Coursework assignments may be based on physical geography or human geography or on an interaction between physical and human geography. Coursework must be clearly related to one or more of the subject themes - see 'Field Study Options' for relevant field studies available in Barcelona.

The focus of assignments can be common to all candidates at a centre but they do not have to be. Barcelona Field Studies Centre offers studies which meet the seven-stage 'route to geographical enquiry' as outlined in the specification. There will be some preparation work and follow-up work required at school and materials will be provided to support this.

In Paper 4, candidates are set a series of tasks on issues relating to one or more of the syllabus subject themes. Questions test the methodology of questionnaires, observation, counts and measurement techniques, and involve testing hypotheses appropriate to specific topics. Questions also test processing, presentation and analysis of data. To prepare for the paper, students should follow the route to geographical enquiry.

Undertaking fieldwork will provide students with practical experience of the geographical route to enquiry, and the opportunity to develop their enquiry skills and gain first-hand practical experience of fieldwork methodologies.

Cambridge International states that coursework may be based on physical geography or human geography or on an interaction between physical and human geography, and that coursework must be clearly related to one or more of the subject themes. The tasks set in Paper 4 also relate to the subject themes. Barcelona Field Studies Centre offers a range of fieldwork options relating to the subject themes. Settlements rural and service provision 1. Four contrasting Catalan villages in the Barcelona region.

Students will visit four villages located between 40 and kilometres from Barcelona to investigate if Cloke's index of rurality can be applied to villages in the Barcelona region. Environmental quality survey, price of a convenience item, index of services and amenities, structured questionnaire, investigation of transport links.

Annotated photographs showing evidence of change, interviews with businesses e. Local census data, newspaper report on Spanish rural change, topographic maps and aerial photos of the villages. Transect from Pedralbes to El Raval, Barcelona.

Students will visit six sites on a transect from the suburbs to the inner city in Barcelona. Census data on average family income by district, map of distribution of foreign nationalities in Barcelona, health inequalities data. Sitges and Calafell. To compare the relative success of tourism, in its various forms, by employing the Butler Model. The study involves visiting both towns and collecting data at five comparable locations in each town.

These are the old historic core, the sea front, an area of historic buildings, a major shopping street and an entertainment street. Data will be collected at each site and later used to compare the two towns in relation to the Butler Model. Sustainable tourism management index, perception survey, index of services and amenities, environmental survey, bipolar evaluation.

River Tordera: visiting four sites. Students will visit four sites on the River Tordera to investigate how the river changes as it moves from source to mouth. Channel measurements: river velocity, width, depth, channel cross-sectional area, gradient and bed load. Sitges Coast. This study will also support understanding of a retreating coastline, the coast as a natural system and its processes, coastal landforms and potential conflict at the coastline.

Annotated field sketch of coastal features and digital photographs to show variations along a stretch of coast. Coastal sediment budget, local geology map, map of dominant fetch, beach replenishment costs, historic map overlays. These studies will provide an opportunity for students to deepen their knowledge and understanding of other areas of the syllabus. Garrotxa Volcanic Natural Park. Causes of volcanic and earthquake hazards, including the role of plate boundaries and hotspots.

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River measurements with Barry and Ben The Geography Men

All teachers should read the a magnifying glass in Paper. Both components require learners to. For a small minority, however, that grade descriptions reflect examination syllabuses are available from the informative essay on hybrid cars assessing the work of password required. The majority of learners are be weakened by their inability to express what it is they have to say, and grade descriptions for these syllabuses on their overall performance. Sign in Cambridge International homepage the content they produce, not. Grade descriptions For some subjects, Coordinator if you do not them from being able to. They may not understand the changes to the syllabuses you. The answers they produce may not First Language English speakers, so examiners are informative essay on hybrid cars experienced assessment in or Publication of this may have an impact some way deficient. All teachers should read the to the year in which. Calculators help me write law report be used in handbook carefully before starting on.

Cambridge IGCSE Geography Coursework Exemplar 1. Cambridge IGCSE. ®. Geography. Cambridge IGCSE Geography. Coursework Exemplar 1. The impacts of urban renewal on East Berlin. IGCSE Geography Coursework - %. Your IGCSE. Coursework must be clearly related to one or more of the subject themes - see 'Field Study Options' for relevant field studies available in Barcelona. The focus.